Life Sciences (Animals, Insects, Plants, Numeric)

Print

Quran states the scientific evidence of impossibility of evolution of humans from animal ancestors by Natural Selection.

 

By: Salama Abdelhady

Professor of Energy Systems, South Valley University

Reading scientifically the Quran, we can identify many misconceptions in Darwin’s evolutionism. It will be sufficient to discuss the following examples that prove the impossibility of evolution of humans from animal ancestors by Natural Selection:

1.  Pair-hood of every thing: Darwin’s evolution assumed natural selection may convert a living cell, of unknown origin, into a complete living creature. Such creature may start, as Darwin assumed, from a worm or an ant, to a complete chimpanzee. However, he didn’t explain how the natural selection produced a male and in the same time its mate female of the same genetic map and number of chromosomes except the two sex chromosomes, Such sex chromosomes are found as  XX in all females and XY in all males. Many biological scientists found the impossibility of Darwin’s assumption of natural selection to find a solution of these pairs. How the natural selection can produce a walking and flying male-mosquito and in the same time a typical female-mosquito to guarantee the continuation of the naturally found race of mosquito? [1].

Quran offers the scientific evidence of such misconception of Darwin’s evolution. In the Quran there are verses stating this is God’s will to show his unique style of creation that implies pairing in every creature in this world. Read this verse:

031.011
YUSUFALI: Such (Style) is the Creation of Allah: now show Me what is there that others besides Him have created (or a non-pairing style): nay, but the Transgressors are in manifest error.
PICKTHAL: This is the Creation of Allah. Now show me that which those (ye worship) beside Him have created. Nay, but the wrong-doers are in error manifest!
SHAKIR: This is Allah's creation (or unique style of creation), but show Me what those besides Him have created of any different style). Nay, the unjust are in manifest error

We see the pairing in every creature; insects, animals, fishes, birds, and even in plants of the earth. God specifies scientifically also His Will of Pairing-Creation by the most accurate meaning in the following verses as evidence of His Uniqueness:

051.049

YUSUFALI: And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.
PICKTHAL: And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect.
SHAKIR: And of everything We have created pairs that you may be mindful.

 

043.012
YUSUFALI: That has created pairs in all things, and has made for you ships and cattle on which ye ride,
PICKTHAL: He Who created all the pairs, and appointed for you ships and cattle whereupon ye ride.
SHAKIR: And He Who created pairs of all things, and made for you of the ships and the cattle what you ride on,

 

2. Sexual Interaction is a unique mean for reproduction: Darwin’s evolution failed to explain how the sexual interaction between the male and female came as a unique process for reproduction by natural selection [2]. Such unique process is the same for every race in all creatures, even in plants. Such failure of Darwin’s theory has no solution without accepting that it is the Will of a Unique Creator that implies a unique style of reproduction in mindless animals and plants to be attracted to each other to keep their races. Quran states scientifically and miraculously that it is God’s Will to sustain the life of every pair of all races from themselves and from the gifted unknown secrets (spirits) and to feed all of them from the plants.


036.036
.
PICKTHAL: Glory be to Him Who created all the sexual pairs, of that which the earth groweth, and of themselves, and of that which they know not!
SHAKIR: Glory be to Him Who created pairs of all things, of what the earth grows, and of their kind and of what they do not know.

YUSUFALI: Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge

These verses are challenges to us to think deeply about all creatures in order to find out this fact: pairing and reproduction is the unique style of God’s creation. The Arabic equivalent to the word THING is given to mean any thing that can be known, physically and spiritually. It implies that a thing is willed and wanted and hence it is revealed after being non-existing. While the world PAIR in Arabic, means one member of a couple; anything that has a partner. So, every creature is created in harmony with another member to form a couple.

3.     It has been found that there are major differences between the claimed ancestors (great apes) and the humans in comparison to the found minor differences between all humans: The Humans have only 23 pairs of chromosomes and chimpanzees as claimed ancestors of humans have 24 pairs of chromosomes. Similarly, there are nine other major chromosomal differences between chimpanzees and humans. Such differences form the evidence of impossibility of assuming apes are our ancestors. Otherwise, we should find different genetic maps of their human successors; i.e. to see humans that have either 23 pairs or 25 pairs of chromosomes or of different genetic maps. However, a DNA survey finds all humans are 99.9% the same [3]. This means that all humans are 99.9 per cent identical from the start of their creation. This identity should be existed from the start of creation of human beings on the earth. Otherwise, we should find now different species of human beings with major differences in their genetic maps as a normal result of the major differences of their ancestors.   It is found of that tiny 0.1 per cent difference, 0.094 % of the variation is among individuals from the same populations and only 0.006 % between individuals from different populations. Such studies are evidence of a unique origin of the human race. The solution is to assure that a man was created definitely with 23 chromosomes and a definite human genetic map that is identical in all humans from their start up to now. Such fact is stated scientifically by verses in the Holy Quran: This ONE MAN should be created by the God’s Will according to the following verse:

 

030.020
YUSUFALI: Among His Signs in this, that He created you from dust; and then,- behold, ye are men scattered (far and wide)!
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He created you of dust, and behold you human beings, ranging widely!
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He created you from dust, then lo! you are mortals (who) scatter.

 

4.     Evolution from any claimed ancestor cannot lead to two similar humans, a male and a female, in the same time from their start up to now.  The genetic map and the number of chromosomes and genes in the human males and females are identical. Like all creatures, each of them normally has one pair of sex chromosomes in each cell. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. So, the two should belong to one origin. The male should be such origin where he has the X and the Y chromosomes. So, the X chromosome in the male is replaced by another Y chromosome that omits male genes in the female. This phenomenon is called X-inactivation or Lyonization.  X-inactivation ensures that females, like males, have one functional copy of the X chromosome in each body cell [4]. Because X-inactivation is random, in normal females the X chromosome inherited from the mother is active in some cells, and the X chromosome inherited from the father is active in other cells,   but both should start from a Unique Human.  Such conclusion cannot be explained without the scientific guide in Quran that assures this the hand of the Creator who arranged One Man and his Mate in the Start of Creation. In the Human’s mate, God inactivated the Y chromosome of the male into another X chromosome to give such coincidence between the two mates in all chromosomes but one between Man and Woman. Such fact is announced scientifically in this verse of the Holy Quran:

004.001
YUSUFALI: O mankind! reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you.
PICKTHAL: O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women. Be careful of your duty toward Allah in Whom ye claim (your rights) of one another, and toward the wombs (that bare you). Lo! Allah hath been a watcher over you.
SHAKIR: O people! be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, by Whom you demand one of another (your rights), and (to) the ties of relationship; surely Allah ever watches over you.

 

5.     Darwin explained evolution of the human body from a primitive cell or Grand ape but he failed to explain the evolution of the human soul. In other words, Darwin’s evolution cares only about the bodies when thinking an animal ancestor for the humans and deny the most important side: the spiritual side . However, the human being is different from animals where such being is distinguished from animals by abilities to think, mind,  learn, choose, decide, manage, create,  innovate, invent, feel, express, love, hate, etc.  We call this distinguishing feature as the “Human Soul.” Quran states the scientific solution of such misconception where Adam’s body, after its creation, was gifted a soul from God and the evolution of Eve was done not only from Adam’s body but also from Adam’s Nafs. This Nafs includes Adam’s body and Adam’s gifted soul. Every creature has only a spirit (the non-imaginable material of life) but the human have also a soul (a non-imaginable thing from God) [5].

039.006
YUSUFALI: He created you (all) from a single Nafs then created, of like nature, his mate; and he sent down for you eight head of cattle in pairs: He makes you, in the wombs of your mothers, in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness. such is Allah, your Lord and Cherisher: to Him belongs (all) dominion. There is no god but He: then how are ye turned away (from your true Centre)?
PICKTHAL: He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation (stage) after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no Allah save Him. How then are ye turned away?
SHAKIR: He has created you from a single being, then made its mate of the same (kind), and He has made for you eight of the cattle in pairs. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers-- a creation (stage) after a creation-- in triple darkness; that is Allah your Lord, His is the kingdom; there is no god but He; whence are you then turned away?

Of course, the process of gifting Adam as the first man a soul from God is stated in the Quran by the following verse:

 032: 006-008

God is Who created everything perfect and He started the creation of man from clay. And He made the human’s progeny from a quintessence of the nature of a despised fluid. Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His Soul; and appointed for him hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye!

6.     Darwin’s Theory Evolution cannot explain why all females on the earth belong to One Woman that fits to be a man’s mate: According to studies carried out on both black and Caucasian women with ancestors from Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia [6], the geneticists found that all had identical stretches of the mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited only from mothers and therefore not a mixture of parental genes. This has led them to from the idea of a common ancestor: to single women from whom we are all descended. So, it is impossible for a man to have any animal’s mate. Such facts are denied in Darwin’s evolution. However, Quran states the scientific reasoning of this undeniable fact. He reminds us in the following verse that these are His signs for those who may understand or reflect by assuring His Greatness.

 

030.021
YUSUFALI: And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.
PICKTHAL: And of His signs is this: He created for you helpmeets from yourselves that ye might find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who reflect.
SHAKIR: And one of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest in them, and He put between you love and compassion; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.

In the meantime, since we are all descended from one woman, there should be a common ancestor to everyone today. So, at least for now, the only safe conclusion is that Adam was Eve's father or the Eve’s source and the ancestor of all humans.

 

7.     Darwin’s Theory of Evolution denied the God’s Will and Intelligence in Starting the Evolution from a Created and Living cell and Guiding this Cell through a UNIQUE MECHANISM in All creatures up to the Human’s distinguished Creation: Darwin’s evolution didn’t explain how the first living cell formed of earth elements came to existence. Such cell is not as simple to exist without Great Creator who gave the clay, raw material of the cell, such abilities to live, feed, digest, sense, grow, reproduce, react, excrete, breath, produce energy, etc. Then Darwin denies the uniqueness of guidance of all creatures to follow a unique style of creation in all of them: two eyes, two ears, one mouth, a head, the same organs, the same functions and the same cells, the same structures of every thing in every creature.  Such misconception of Darwin was stated by the scientific Evidence of God’s Will in the following verse:

023.012-014

Verily We created man from an ancestry of clay, then (for reproduction) he is placed as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging (womb), Then We made the drop into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best of creators.

 

 1.    http://listverse.com/2008/02/19/top-15-misconceptions-about-evolution/

2.    www.astro.umd.edu/~miller/teaching/astr380f09/lecture07.pdf

3.     http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/1416706/DNA-survey-finds-all-humans-are-99.9pc-the-same.html

4.     http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/X

5.     http://www.quran-m.com/firas/en1/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=437:quran-punches-hole-in-atheism-the-dreams&catid=35:universe&Itemid=91

6.     http://www.virginia.edu/woodson/courses/aas102%20(spring%2001)/articles/tierney.html